"The Mayans originated in a region called Mesoamerica, or Middle America. This region lies in between Mexico and South America and was home to many other cultures, including the Aztec, Olmec, Teotihuacan and Toltec. The Mayans lived in what are today Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador and Southern Mexico.
Mesoamericans began writing the calendar during the mid-Pre-classic period and were the first to keep any sort of historical record. They used stelae, or stone monuments, to carve their civil events, calendars and astronomy knowledge. They also inscribed their religious beliefs and mythology on pottery. Placing great value in recording their people's history, they weren't the first civilization to ever use a calendar, but did devise four separate calendars that lasted for discrete time periods. Depending on their needs, the Mayans used different calendars or a combination of two calendars to record each event. Their Long Count calendar, expired in 2012, leading some to believe that it would coincide with an apocalyptic event."